Author Archives: Kui Xie

2020 Résumé of The Research Laboratory for Digital Learning

The Research Laboratory for Digital Learning (RLDL) at The Ohio State University has continued its effort in conducting educational research and advancing the science of learning. In doing so, we highlight the idea of translational research where practice helps to generate research questions and research helps to inform practice. Again we had an exceptional year full of impactful research and teaching. Here is our developing 2020 Résumé: (more…)

Publication on Motivation Profiles, Engagement, and Performance

Xie, K., Vongkulluksn, V., Lu, L., & Cheng, S.L. (2020). A person-centered approach to examining high-school students’ motivation, engagement and academic performance. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 101877. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2020.101877

Abstract
This study examined the relationship among motivation, engagement, and academic performance through a person-centered research approach. Participants included 10,527 students in grades 9 to 12 from twenty public high schools across the state of Ohio in the United States. Latent profile analysis revealed seven profiles of academic motivation including the amotivated, externally regulated, balanced demotivated, moderately motivated, identified/externally regulated, balanced motivated, and autonomously motivated profile groups. Students in these motivational profiles exhibited differences in cognitive and social engagement, as well as academic performance. In addition, multiple-group path analysis revealed different patterns of relationship among cognitive engagement, social engagement, and GPA, suggesting that motivational profile membership moderated the relationship between engagement and academic performance.

Publication on Learning Environment for Science Argumentation

Lin, Y.R., Fan, B., & Xie, K. (2020). The influence of a web-based learning environment on low achievers’ science argumentation. Computers & Education, 151, 103860. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2020.103860

Abstract
The present study developed a web-based argumentation program (WAP) to support the science concept and argumentation learning of low achievers (LAs) in socio-scientific issue (SSI) contexts. A quasi-experimental design was applied in the present study. A total of 63 eighth-grade LAs were defined as the experimental group, while 62 of their peers who were medium achievers (MAs) were defined as the control group. The WAP was developed based on three principles to address the specific needs of the LAs: visualizability, interactivity, and multiplicity. The statistical results showed that both the MAs and LAs exhibited significant improvements in both conceptual learning and argumentation learning. However, the LAs acquired better and more balanced improvement in their science argumentation learning. They even outperformed their peers in the MA group in terms of using level 1 claims and qualifiers in the WAP. Meanwhile, the qualitative analysis showed that both the LAs and MAs had no problems with using claims, warrants, or rebuttals. Most of the LAs basically saw the SSI argumentation as a competition and understood that they could potentially strengthen their arguments by citing evidence. However, they found it difficult to construct higher level qualifiers because they had difficulty perceiving the limitations of their own arguments. The co-constructions in the WAP were a main factor influencing the degree and sequence of the LAs’ improvements in using claims, warrants, and rebuttals. We subdivided their co-constructions into two types: opposed and supportive. The two types of co-constructions provided the students with various paths through which they can reflect on and evaluate their knowledge. This indicates that there is much potential for the further development of web-based scaffolding in order to facilitate argumentation learning for LAs.

Publication on Student Engagement in Flipped Learning

Sun, Z. & Xie, K. (2020). How do students prepare in the pre-class setting of a flipped undergraduate math course? A latent profile analysis of learning behavior and the impact of achievement goals. The Internet and Higher Education, 46, 100731. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2020.100731

Abstract
Pre-class preparedness is critical to students’ in-class learning and overall success in the flipped classroom. This study used both trace data and self-report data to identify students’ pre-class learning behavior profiles and investigate the relations of the identified learning profiles with the achievement trajectory over time and students’ perceived achievement goal orientations in a flipped undergraduate math class. Three distinctive types of pre-class learning profiles emerged from the study, including the lecture-focused and low time-spent profile, lecture-quiz-balanced and average time-spent profile, and quiz-focused and high time-spent profile. The results show that students’ performance trajectories were significantly different among the three learning profiles. In addition, achievement goals significantly impacted the membership of the learning profiles, indicating students’ perceived goal orientations shape their pre-class learning behaviors. The theoretical and instructional implications are discussed, and specific design suggestions were provided to improve students’ pre-class preparedness in the flipped math classroom.

Publication on Teachers’ Expectancy-Value for Technology Integration

Cheng, S.L., Lu, L., Xie, K., & Vongkulluksn, V.W. (2020). Understanding teacher technology integration from expectancy-value perspectives. Teaching and Teacher Education, 91 103062. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2020.103062

Abstract
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between teachers’ ability beliefs, expectancy beliefs, value beliefs, and technology integration based upon expectancy-value theory of motivation. The results of confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling show that teachers’ value and competence beliefs about technology integration are multidimensional constructs. Ability beliefs strongly predict expectancy and value beliefs. Most importantly, expectancy beliefs and value beliefs play differential roles in relation to teachers’ technology use in classrooms. The ways in which different aspects of teacher beliefs can be fostered are discussed.

Publication on Teacher Gesture Analysis

Liu, Q., Zhang, N., Chen, W., Wang, Q., Yuan, Y., & Xie, K. (2020) Categorizing teachers’ gestures in classroom teaching: from the perspective of multiple representations, Social Semiotics, DOI: 10.1080/10350330.2020.1722368

Abstract
Teachers’ use of gestures with multiple representations are common non-verbal behaviors in classroom teaching. Teachers’ gestures as a subject of research has attracted more and more interest in recent years. Categories of gestures need to be developed to facilitate the analysis of teachers’ gestures in classroom teaching. This study developed categories of teachers’ gestures in classroom teaching from the perspective of multiple representations. Based on the developed categories, the study examined the gestures of six teachers (three novice teachers and three expert teachers) through video analysis. The findings indicate that the embedding of multiple representation theory makes the function classification of gestures more specific and meaningful. The application findings also indicate that this new approach is capable of distinguishing different gesture characteristics between different teachers in relation to the teaching experience. Moreover, the findings clearly indicate the applicability, reliability, and validity of the categories of teachers’ gestures developed. The study has implications on future theoretical and applied research on non-verbal behaviors in the classrooms.

Publication on Technology Use in Nurse Education

Tornwall, J., Lu, L., & Xie, K. (2020). Frequency of participation in student response system activities as a predictor of final grade: An observational study. Nurse Education Today, 87 104342. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2020.104342

Abstract
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to determine whether frequency of participation in activities offered in a student response system was associated with students’ final course grades in four different nursing courses and to explore whether that effect was dependent on the specific pedagogical context of each course.

Design
An observational approach with a predictive model was used to examine the effect of a student’s frequency of responses to prompts in a student response system (Nearpod) on final grade.

Setting
This investigation was carried out in four high-enrollment nursing courses in a large Midwestern university in the United States. (more…)

Publication on Preservice Teachers’ Field Experiences

Nelson, M.J. & Hawk, N.A. (2020). The impact of field experiences on prospective preservice teachers’ technology integration beliefs and intentions. Teaching and Teacher Education, 89 103006. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2019.103006

Abstract
This study investigated how field experiences impacted the technology integration beliefs and intentions of prospective preservice teachers. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), a three-way interaction between the type, frequency, and quality of field technology observations predicted changes in beliefs and intentions. Beliefs about the utility of technology directly predicted intentions to use technology and intentions to use Meaningful Learning approaches to technology integration. Additionally, beliefs about technology’s importance in education indirectly predicted both variables. Positive impacts of field experiences on beliefs and intentions only existed when prospective preservice teachers saw technology used frequently by skilled teachers using Meaningful Learning approaches.

Publication on Teacher Knowledge Construction

Zhang, N., Liu, Q., Zhu, J., Wang, Q., & Xie, K. (2020). Analysis of temporal characteristics of collaborative knowledge construction in teacher workshops. Technology, Knowledge, and Learning, 25, 323–336.https://doi.org/10.1007/s10758-019-09422-9

Abstract
Teacher workshops attract teachers with common goals; they wish to improve their teaching practices and subject and information technology knowledge. The asynchronous online discussion is the main activity in teacher workshops. An analytical model was developed in this study to examine the temporal characteristics of collaborative knowledge construction in teacher workshops. Specifically, 664 posts were analyzed from an asynchronous online discussion—involving 91 teachers—on the topic, “How to Make a Language Course Interesting?” The aim of this paper is to present the changes in knowledge construction levels and teachers’ social interactive characteristics resulting from participation in teacher workshops. From the findings of this study, advances in theory, methodology and pedagogical practice are indicated. The findings also indicate that knowledge construction levels and teachers’ social interactive characteristics change at different stages of discussions. Suggestions for improving the effects of online teacher workshops are provided.

2019 Résumé of The Research Laboratory for Digital Learning

The Research Laboratory for Digital Learning (RLDL) at The Ohio State University has continued its effort in conducting educational research and advancing the science of learning. In doing so, we highlight the idea of translational research where practice helps to generate research questions and research helps to inform practice. Again we had an exceptional year full of impactful research and teaching. Here is our 2019 Résumé: (more…)